By the end of the 1940s, the Japanese Ohno had purchased a number of used presses from the United States and began experimenting with the equipment. The Japanese eventually developed a way to increase productivity while delivering better quality through “Lean production” (combining the advantages of craftsmanship from P&L, and mass production from Ford, while avoiding the disadvantages). Lean producers use teams of multi-skilled workers at all levels of the organization as well as flexible and automated machines. Lean producers strive for perfection: constantly reduced costs, zero deficits, zero inventories and an endless product range.
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