At the Berlin Conference of 1884–85, the colonial powers drew up the main features of the map that still applies to Africa today. The driving force was the need for expansion and supply of raw materials. During the 20th century, especially after the end of World War II, Europe faced growing competition from the United States and for decades, the Soviet Union also made efforts to make allies in Africa. After the fall of the Soviet Union, American influence became even more prominent, with the help of multilateral institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the WTO.
A “Brief” on the book can be read here.